Archive for spbiiarhiv

Publication of documents

The publishing house “Aurora” issued a collection of documents “Leningrad on the eve of the Great Patriotic War. 1938–1941”. Ed. by A.I. Rupasov. St. Petersburg, 2022.

The proposed edition of archival documents covers the history of Leningrad during the period immediately preceding the Great Patriotic War (October 1938 – June 1941). This practically unexplored period is very important not only because the documents show the detrimental effect of even the “imperceptible” Soviet-Finnish war on the infrastructure and population of a large city located close to the front line. Many of the problems of 1938-1941, reflected in the published documents, make it possible to better understand the besieged existence of Leningrad, assess the readiness of city services for the most difficult trials, and the ability of the leadership to respond to the challenges of history. The publication may be of interest both for specialists and for everyone who is interested in the problems of the history of Russia in the 20th century.

The diploma of Emperor Otto I the Great – the virtual exhibition

Диплом Оттона I Великого в собрании архива СПбИИ РАН - виртуальная выставка

Otto I the Great was born on November 23, 912. The Holy Roman Empire founded by him lasted almost a millennium. The diploma of Emperor Otto, presented at the virtual exhibition, clearly demonstrates that such stability cannot be achieved through weapons alone, but relies primarily on the support of the citizens of the state, with whom a wise ruler must be able to negotiate and respect their interests.

In 936, the young Otto inherited from his father the Duchy of Saxony and the German Kingdom. By 941, by skillful diplomacy and force of arms, Otto had consolidated and expanded his influence throughout Germany. The Wends (Slavs) and Magyars (Hungarians), whom Otto actively converted to Christianity, remained a constant threat. In the church itself, he began a gradual reformation aimed at subordinating the clergy to the secular government. In 946, Otto helped the Carolingian dynasty to stay in power in France, and in 951 he made his first campaign in Italy. In Pavia, Otto was crowned with the iron crown of the Lombards and proclaimed king of Italy, as once Charlemagne. Unrest in Germany forced Otto to return home. But then in 961, he began the Second Italian campaign, aimed at strengthening his power over central Italy, and just a year later in Rome Pope John XII met Otto and crowned him as emperor. The kingdoms of Germany and Italy under Otto I were united to form the Holy Roman Empire. Otto spent his remaining years establishing order in his new state and trying to improve relations with Byzantium, which challenged his rights as emperor and his expansion into the south of the Italian peninsula. Otto the Great died on May 7, 973.
The diploma of Otto I, stored in the archives of St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Archive of St. Petersburg Institute of History, Russian Academy of Sciences, WES, collection 24, box 459, item 13) is dated April 18, 969. The history of its acquisition is extremely vague. Prior to its discovery in Leningrad, the original diploma was considered lost. It is known that for some time the document was kept in Parma, since in 1792 it was published according to the original, which was in the local episcopal archive. However, by the time of its reprint in the Monumenta Germaniae Historica in 1879–1884, the diploma had mysteriously disappeared. Thus, it can be assumed that in the collection of N.P. Likhachev, the document came, probably, at the end of the 19th – beginning of the 20th century.
The document is a horizontal sheet of parchment 41.4 cm high and 56.4 cm wide. The text itself is almost intact, but the appearance of the letter leaves much to be desired. The parchment is stained in several places, and tears are visible on the fold lines. In place of the seal, only a diamond-shaped hole and a round imprint remained.
In his charter, the emperor Otto, who was in Calabria, confirms the rights of his loyal subject Ingon and his heirs to land holdings throughout Italy, including those in Lomellina, Piombino, Milan, Pavia, Piacenza and Parma. Although the confirmation of rights by the monarch is one of the most common types of public act, this charter is distinguished by the fact that a special formula is included in the section on the non-interference of the judiciary and other authorities in matters of land rights, informing the jurisdiction of Ingon only to the emperor. In the documents of the 9th-11th centuries, the right of jurisdiction to the emperor is quite rare.
It is difficult to overestimate the value of documents like this. The Holy Roman Empire lasted for almost a millennium, from 962 to 1806, and at its height, under the reign of Charles V of Habsburg, covered most of Europe and the colonies in America. The diploma of Emperor Otto clearly demonstrates that such stability cannot be achieved through weapons alone, but relies primarily on the support of the citizens of the state, with whom a wise ruler must be able to negotiate and respect their interests.

In preparing the exhibition, an article was used: Anninsky S.A. Diploma of Otto I (969) in the collection of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR // Auxiliary historical disciplines. Coll. of articles. M.; L., 1937. Pp. 141-160.

The exhibition was prepared by N.B. Sredinskaya and I.D. Travin

Collection of articles

The publishing house “Nauka” issued a collection of articles timed to the seventy-fifth birthday of Evgeny Viktorovich Anisimov “Man and Power in Russia in the 17th-18th centuries”. Ed. by P.V. Sedov and A.A. Selin. St. Petersburg, 2022.
The articles included in this book examine the history of Russia in the 17th-18th centuries. The collection consists of articles by friends, colleagues and students of E.V. Anisimov. This volume explores the problems of the relationship between power and society, the state and the individual, the history of the royal court, the Church and the social history of the Russian state.